Are lesbians and straight men attracted to women differently?

2021.10.23 13:51 steamtrekker Are lesbians and straight men attracted to women differently?

At the end of the day, love boils down to commitment, personality, and virtues, which are universal concepts. However, as a straight man, I was wondering, if me and a lesbian had a crush on the same girl, would we notice or obsess over the same things? I understand that everyone processes attraction differently, and also gender roles play a large factor in how people perceive each other, but I imagine our points of attraction would from very different angles.
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2021.10.23 13:51 SidOnTheSide Where can you legally smoke cannabis in San Jose?

So there are tons of dispensaries and the city celebrates huge tax numbers. Look at this quote:

According to San Jose Police Department Division Manager Wendy Sollazzi, tax revenue from cannabis sales is expected to provide the city with $17 million for fiscal year 2020-21
So where can a recreational user smoke cannabis legally in San Jose? The majority of people living in San Jose are renters and do not own their own homes. So that means that the majority of cannabis users will have to have somewhere to legally smoke. Almost all of the apartment buildings and residential rentals are smoke free and they do not allow cannabis to be consumed anywhere on their property. So where can you go? You can't smoke in your car and you can't smoke in public. So what is going on? Is San Jose reaping the benefits of cannabis tax while simultaneously discriminating against its users? It seems like California loves cannabis money but hates cannabis users.
So where can a recreational cannabis user smoke?
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2021.10.23 13:51 paigeaandersonn BNWT 7” clover UFT! Willing to bundle with clover clip to get more of my isos. DISO Malcom 8”, DISO Zelina any size, iso Fina 12”, iso juniper 8”, iso Maurice 8” iso Jamal 8”, iso DOTD Brooke, and DISO Calton✨I can’t post a photo without the Reddit app crashing, so PM me for photos

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2021.10.23 13:51 Tayo826 NJ Transit in a nutshell

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2021.10.23 13:51 Coffeenwineplease Evil dies tonight!

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2021.10.23 13:51 theothertrunk 12 Hours Heavy Rainfall with Thunder Ambient Sleep Sounds REUPLOADED

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2021.10.23 13:51 Remarkable_Wafer_924 Boats at night

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2021.10.23 13:51 UnknownOrigins1 Advice on Separatist Team

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2021.10.23 13:51 armzino They must all be AI bots :/

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2021.10.23 13:51 PetrutK 🚀 Starbase Token latest tweet by Elon Musk - FAIRLAUNCH NOW

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2021.10.23 13:51 NoChoice6899 Negative toc’s

I don’t understand why it seems there’s no cure for this or it just leaves so much damage. My urethra is ruined now and i don’t understand why. My tests say negative and I’m still having urgency, and pain in my urethra. Now I’m looking into urethral syndrome and having a break down. I shouldn’t have a chronic illness from this
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2021.10.23 13:51 mcsorleyrules New Shop Cats are Screwing up the Sleeping Arrangements

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2021.10.23 13:51 my-eye-candy-account Absolutely Love Her

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2021.10.23 13:51 ExoTitan3000 Haven’t played warzone in about a year. Why have they gotten rid of pay load and clash? I’m trying to level up black ops guns and now I can’t. Also they have gotten rid of normal duos? Me and my mate don’t like iron trails.

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2021.10.23 13:51 JessieSummers78 Memphis Skyline

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2021.10.23 13:51 D-Run_k DO NOT add your own icing

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2021.10.23 13:51 dweeeebus Getting a massage today...from a man

Should I be worried about it feeling good?
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2021.10.23 13:51 Cjchalmers Useless Items/Clutter

Hello, i am developing an xbox dayz server and i’m wondering what items are generally considered “useless” that i can get rid of, items like screwdrivers, brooms, wrenches etc, anyone able to help? thanks.
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2021.10.23 13:51 theothertrunk 12 Hours Heavy Rainfall with Thunder Ambient Sleep Sounds REUPLOADED

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2021.10.23 13:51 GameDealsBot1 [IndieGala] Secrets of Magic: The Book of Spells (100% OFF / FREE)

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2021.10.23 13:51 JacqueMaritain_lives The Case for Worker Cooperatives

What is a Cooperative? Following Pèrontin, worker cooperatives would be defined as firms where all or most capital is owned by the employees individually through shares, all categories of employees can be members and most employees are members, each members have one vote regardless of their share of the capital and members actively participate democratically in the running of the organization. She explains,

[. . .] a worker co-operative is defined as a firm that has the following characteristics: all or most of the capital is owned by employees (members) whether individually and/or collectively (capital ownership arrangements vary); all categories of employees can become members; most employees are members; in accordance with international co-operative principles, members each have one vote, regardless of the amount of capital they have invested in the business; and members vote on strategic issues in annual general meetings and elect the chief executive officer (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Answering Objections to Cooperatives Cooperative size relative to other firms
A frequently heard criticism of cooperatives is that they cannot maintain the necessary economies of scale to be efficient. Economic theory would predict that this is the case due to capital intensivity and, additioanally, the incentive of employee-owners not to dilute their share value. Empirically, however, this is not the case. “Where we have data for workers’ co-operatives” Pèrontin explains, “we observe that the co-ops are actually larger than other firms. Pencavel et al (2006) use data covering 2,000 worker co-operatives and 150,000 other firms in Italy, observed over 13 years. They find that both the average and the median numbers of employees are larger for the co-operatives than for the other firms (for example, in 1994, the last year for their sample, average employment was 284 in the co-operatives and 228 in the other firms, and median employment 153 and 72 respectively in the two groups of firms) (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Industry Concentration
One commonly held idea is that worker cooperatives can only compete in certain sectors (for example, sectors with low capital intensivity). If this were true, we would expect that they would be very concentrated in certain firms, and virtually non-existent in others. In practice, while cooperatives are found very concentrated in certain industries, namely agriculture and finance, they are found across all sectors. What’s more, the French evidence finds that the difference between industry Concentration is not significant either. Where cooperatives are not particularly concentrated, such as in services or transportation, other firms are not either. For instance, 62% of cooperatives are found in services and 70% of conventional forms, or 2.5% of cooperatives in transport compared to 3.5% for conventional firms. Pèrontin explains,
If worker co-operatives were only suited to a small group of special industries, we would expect a clear pattern common to different countries in the ways worker co-operatives’ distribution across industries compares with that of other firms. The absence of any such pattern suggests the differences between the two groups are more complex. One way to investigate the role of different factors in creating these patterns is to look at the effect of industry characteristics on firm creation and survival for worker co-operatives and other firms” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
The data, on the other hand, finds cooperatives spread across all sectors in France, Spain and Basque Country, among other countries.
Firm Creation and Survival
With regards to firm creation and survival, the higher capital intensity and risk in a given sector would result in less cooperatives being created in said sector. Empirical evidence has confirmed this. With this in mind, however, evidence from France between 1979 to 1998 were found to have similar survival rates to other firms, and a higher birth rate (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”). Contrary to what some have hypothesized, the business cycle does not tend to result in more firm closures amongst cooperatives. “Although they are created more counter-cyclically than other firms”, Pèrontin notes, “worker co-operatives have not been found to close down in recoveries, as had been hypothesised by Ben-Ner (1988). In France at least, the effect of the business cycle on firm closures is the same among worker co-operatives and other firms (Pérotin 2006). More generally, as we have seen, the existing evidence suggests that labour- managed firms survive at least as well as conventional firms” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Capitalization and Investment
Economic theory predicts that cooperatives often struggle with access to capital due to their reduced inability to access capital markets attributable to their lack of stock. This has some empirical basis. “Several studies”, Pèrontin explains, “find that the average capital intensity (i.e. fixed assets per employee) in worker co-operatives is lower than that of conventional firms (Bartlett et al, 1992, Pencavel et al, 2006, Maietta and Sena, 2008)” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”). Even with this in mind, Pèrontin notes that “[. . .] Pencavel et al (2006) find that in Italy the median capital per employee is higher in worker co-operatives. In addition, they find that the values of the ratio are more dispersed for the co-operatives, which have higher proportions of firms with both very low and very high levels of capital intensity than conventional firms. In France, Fakhfakh et al’s (2012) investigation by broad industry group shows conventional firms’ capital intensity is higher than worker co-operatives’ in three industry groups, but there is no statistically significant difference between the two types of firms in the four other industry groups” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”). We can thus conclude that there is scant evidence of underinvestment in cooperatives found in French and Italian labour managed firms. As Pèrontin elaborates,
No evidence of under-investment has been found in French worker co-operatives (Estrin and Jones 1998) or in Italian ones (Maietta and Sena 2008). In all the industry groups looked at by Fakhfakh et al (2012) investment, measured as the annual growth of fixed assets, is either the same in both types of firms (three industry groups) or faster in the co-operatives (four industry groups). This pattern is confirmed by estimations of returns to scale, which show no evidence that labour-managed firms operate at a smaller, inefficient scale as the under-investment hypothesis would imply (Fakhfakh et al 2012)” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Benefits of Cooperatives over Conventional Firms better Productivity
In terms of productivity, worker cooperatives can be imagined to be more productive by economic theory because cooperatives maintain an incentive for increased profitability being shared amongst workers. Empirically, worker cooperatives organize production differently from other firms in ways that are more efficient. Pèrontin explains,
In all cases, the findings imply that worker co-operatives organise production differently from other firms: the production function is not the same for the two groups. Two studies – Craig and Pencavel (1995) and Fakhfakh et al (2012) – apply both of the estimated production functions to the current inputs of each group of firms. Both studies find that on average overall firms can produce more with the technology of employee-owned firms. In other words, the way worker co- operatives organise production is more efficient. Fakhfakh et al (2012) show that in several industries conventional firms would produce more with their current levels of employment and capital if they adopted the employee-owned firms’ way of organising production. In contrast, they find that worker co-operatives would always produce at least as much with their own technology as with conventional firms” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
This is likely attributable to employee control, as it “[. . .] is thought”, Pèrontin notes, “to increase productivity, and in a labour- managed firm adjusting pay to preserve jobs makes sense for the employee-owners. Worker-members make the decision to adjust pay and they get the future profits” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Employment and Pay Adjustment
In addition to the social duty cooperatives have in providing gainful, stable employment, cooperatives also have economic reasons to hire and fire differently than other firms. Cooperatives invest more in each employee by making them co-owners, and thus have higher costs associated with hiring and firing practices. Cooperatives, therefore, are expected to hire less, but also to fire less and therefore provide more stable employment. This also means they can have a counter cyclical effect by maintaining employment even in downturns by drawing upon indivisible reserves to invest into the cooperative’s capital. “Four studies compare the responses of employee-owned and other firms” Pèrontin explains, “to changes in market conditions. Craig & Pencavel (1992, 1993) look at the plywood firms of the US Pacific Northwest in 1968-86; Pencavel et al (2006) examine a very large sample of Italian conventional and co-operative firms in 1982-94 in Italy; and Burdín and Dean (2009) study all firms (worker co-operatives and others) in Uruguay from 1996 to 2005. Despite the differences in co-operative constitutions between these countries, their findings are remarkably consistent. Conventional firms are found to adjust employment in response to changes in product prices and to demand shocks (in the Uruguayan study they also adjust pay). Worker co-operatives adjust pay and not employment in response to product price changes (in Uruguay, only members’ pay changes and the change is much greater than pay changes in conventional firms). In response to demand shocks, the co-operatives adjust pay more than employment, and their employment adjustment is slower and more limited than other firms. These findings imply that worker-managed firms may hire less than other firms in periods of growth, but importantly may also preserve jobs better in downturns” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Due to the variability of pay based on the stage of the business cycle because cooperatives rely on profits to pay their wages rather than cutting employment, cooperatives tend to experience contradictory results regarding pay rate relative to other firms. Pèrontin notes,
This possible variability may explain the contradictory findings of the very few studies comparing pay in worker co-operatives and conventional firms, with some studies observing higher pay in the co-operatives (Bartlett et al 1992, Burdín 2015) and others equal hourly wages in the two groups of firms (Magne 2014) or lower pay in the co-operatives (Pencavel et al 2006, Clemente et al 2012). Burdín (2015) on Uruguay, Magne (2014) on France, and to a certain extent Clemente et al (2012) on Spain also observe that worker co-operatives are more egalitarian than conventional firms (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Concluding Remarks These data points tend to suggest that many of the common reasons provided for why cooperatives have not been successful - namely, underinvestment, inability to grow to sizes necessary to achieve maximum efficiency and concentration only within specific sectors - are not necessarily accurate. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that cooperatives are created at similar rates relative to the size of the cooperative sector as a whole, provide stabler, long term employment, are at least as productive as conventional firms and succeed at least as often as conventional firms. “We need”, Pèrontin notes, “to revise our view of worker co-operatives. Worker co-ops are larger than other firms and not necessarily less capital intensive, although they may be created more often than other firms in less capital intensive industries, all else being equal. They are present in most industries and differences in industry distributions with conventional firms vary from one country to another. International evidence suggests that worker co-operatives survive at least as well as other firms, even in capital-intensive industries. Labour-managed firms are probably more productive and may preserve jobs better in recessions than conventional firms, creating more sustainable jobs. Promoting worker co-operatives could therefore improve local communities’ employment, and therefore health and social expenditure and tax revenue (Pérotin 2014)” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
White it is true that “[s]ome of the evidence presented in this paper concerns a small number of countries or particular phases in the business cycle and needs to be further replicated. However, it is consistent in suggesting that far from being a niche business form only appropriate in special circumstances, worker co-operatives constitute a serious alternative – a high-performing firm type suited to all or a very broad range of industries, and possibly more sustainable than conventional businesses. However, worker co-operatives represent a very small part of the business sector because too few are created. In order to design strategies to overcome this obstacle we need to examine in more depth the successful experiences of Italy and Spain, where the worker co-operative sector reaches a different scale altogether than the UK and French sectors, employing hundreds of thousands of people” (Pèrotin, “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?”).
Works Cited
V. Pèrotin., “What do we really know about worker co-operatives?” Co-operatives UK, Accessed Oct 22 2021.
submitted by JacqueMaritain_lives to ChristianDemocrat [link] [comments]

2021.10.23 13:51 edamiani Games won't load

Hi, I installed many different versions of BlueStacks, always with the same result: I can install games but they will crash soon after running them.
I tried both BlueStacks 4 and 5, with and without Hyper-V activated. My CPU is an Intel i7 1165G7 with Iris XE (Windows 10). I'm specifically trying to run Dead Cells but I tried other games with the same result (game crashes as soon as it opens).
Any ideas on what might be happening are highly appreciated.
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